Cheyenne Dictionary

 Cheyenne

'

'-1   pv. epenthetic consonant which occurs to prevent some preverb-final vowels from making contact with a following vowel; this element always follows sáa- 'not' when it precedes a vowel. Ésáa-'-áahtomónéhe. He didn't listen. (cf. ésáa-manéhe 'He didn't drink.').

'-2   tns. past tense. allomorph of /h/ 'past tense' between vowels. É'-áahtomónėsesto. They were listening (reportative). See: h- past tense; '-1 epenthetic vowel.

-'á   fti. fta: -'ov. by foot (or body). éávevo'ē-'a He knocked it over (with his body). éé'é-'a He broke it with his foot.

-'ahtá   fti. taste. éhoháe-'ȧhtánóvo ho'évohkȯtse They really go for the taste of meat. Námé'-áhta I recognized its taste. Náoné-'áhta I tasted it (that is, tested its taste). Nápėhévé-'áhta I like its taste. fai: -'ȧsene.

-'ahtse   ni. Gram: poss arm, hand, forearm. includes hand and forearm. ma-'ahtse arm. Plural ma-'ȧhtsenȯtse. na-'ahtse my hand/arm. he-'ȧhtsenȯtse his arms. he-'ȧhtsenevótse their arms. BodyPartMedial -he'oná hand; -na'eva arm. See: -ahtsená mouth. Etym: *mexpetwini. Category: body.

-'a'one ??   ni. Gram: poss shin (poss.) ma-'a'one (ōne?) a shin. Plural ma-'a'onȯtse; Medial -a'oná; IndepNoun ve'ȯhkono. See: -vé'ho'á'one. Etym: cf. nexkaxkwani 'my shin'. Category: body.

-'asé   mbp. belly. See: -tonėše; -ome.

-'ȧsené   fai. taste. Éhméhaehoháe'-ȧsēne. He used to really drink. [1987:200] Ée'omé-'ȧsēne. He tasted (s.t.) greasy.

-'éémá   mbp. snot; mucus; runny nose. É-néhe'éemȧséóhtse. He has a runny nose. Category: nose.

-'éeme   na. Gram: poss snot. ma-'éeme snot. he-'éemo his snot. ne-'éeme your snot. Morph: /ma-'ééme/. See: -htátseeme. Etym: cf. *makikwa or akikwa. Category: nose.

-'esé   mbp. rump, buttocks, anus, ass, butt. hóxe-'ėsénéó'o bustle (lit. tie.around-buttocks-(thing)). vé'še-'ėsénȯhestȯtse pants (lit. enclosed-rump-thing). táxe-'ėséestȯtse chair (lit. on-rump-sit-thing). Étó'ėse-'ėsévo'ėhāna. She has high heeled shoes. (lit. long-"rumped"). Né'eve-'ėsé'hameha! Pull your pants up! Nátóo-'ėsénoo'o. I rear ended them. See: -esé nose (med.). Category: body.

-'esó   fii. long, length. Éháa-'ēso. It's far away. Étsėhe-'ēso. It's long. Category: size.

-'está1   mbp. ear. É-matse'ēsta. He has infected/running ears. Éónėše'-ėstáóhtse. He has pain in the ears. néške'ēsta chipmunk (lit. perked-ears). var: -'kestá1. See: -htovoo'ȯtse ear (poss.). Category: ears, body.

-'está2   na. Gram: poss vagina. var: -'kestá2; Homonym -'está ear. Category: sex, vulgar.

-'ėstahe   fai. height, length, high, long. Étsėhe-'ėstahe. He's tall. É-tšėhe'kėstahe. He is short. Éhehpe-'ėstahe. He's taller. fii: -'esó. Category: height, size.

-'évá   m. wife. Éasėta-'éva. He took a wife. Éháestȯhe-'éva. He has many wives. Énéše-'éva. He has two wives. Ého'ėhéhestaná-'éva. He came to court (his lover) under a blanket. Étsėhése-'éva. He has a Cheyenne wife. Masculine -éhamá. Category: marriage.

-'evo   ni. Gram: poss nose. ma-'evo a nose. na-'evo my nose. Plural ma-'evonȯtse; Medial -esé. Morph: /ma-'evon/. Etym: *mexkiwani. Category: body, nose.

-'exa   ni. Gram: poss eye. ma-'exa eye. Plural ma-'éxánėstse. na-'exa my eye. na-'éxánėstse my eyes. BodyPartMedial -'éxané; Oblique ma-'éxáá'e. Morph: /na-'éšen/. Etym: *neškiinšekwi. Category: eyes.

'éxae   ni. Gram: poss eye. na'éxaenōtse our (excl) eyes.

-'éxané   mbp. eye. Éotá'tave-'éxáne. He has blue eyes. Éó'kȯhoméheve-'éxáne. He is sly/he cheats (lit. has coyote eyes). Émomá'e-'éxáne. He has red/bloodshot eyes. Émamée-'éxanénahtse. He rubbed his (own) eyes. Stem -'exa. Category: eyes.

-'haenȯtse   na. Gram: poss sputum, spit, phlegm. na-'haenȯtse my phlegm. he-'haenoto his sputum. See: -oese'haná.

-'hame   na. Gram: poss cross-nice. Gram: poss. This is a man's sister's daughter or a woman's brother's daughter. She is called "niece" when speaking English in the Cheyenne system. na-'hāme my cross-niece. ná-'hame cross-niece (voc.) he-'hameho his cross-niece. tséhe-'hamėhéto the one who is my cross-niece. na-'hamasėstse cross-nieces (voc.) See: -htónȧhamóone. Category: relatives. vai: -he-'hamehe. Category: relatives. Etym: *ne'θem-.

-'ha(me)   fna. livestock. esp. horses; cattle. originally, for dog, then extended to other domesticated animals. mo'éhno-'ha horse. he'é-'hame mare (lit. female-horse). vóhpo-'ha white horse. Phon: -me elides when word-final, for example, when singular. Category: livestock.

-'hamé   fai. livestock. esp. horses or cattle. Ése'a'ovo-'hāme. He watered livestock. Návoneotsé'háme. I lost my herd. Nánomáhto-'hāme. I stole horses.

-'haná   fai. eat. var: -e'haná. Category: eat.

-'háononá   mbp. popliteal (back of knee). Nėstsenoné'ke-'háónóna. You'll be dirty back of your knees. (When short skirts came into style, Cheyenne women would tease each other saying this; the dirtiness could be from dust or dirt; the word refers to being streaked as with a dirty streaked face; the connotation could even be (especially was?) of being streaked with urine.) Category: body.

'heóneve   fai. characterized as. Énėševátsėstȧhé-'heóneve He's a merciful person. Émané-'heóneve. He's a drunkard. See: -éve. Category: personality.

-'kestá1   mbp. ear. var: -'está1; Homonym -'kestá2 vagina. Category: ears, body.

-'kestá2   na. Gram: poss vagina. ma-'kēsta vagina. Usage: This variant may be more commonly used than -'está. var: -'está2. he-'kėstáne her vagina. Plural ma-'(k)ėstáne; BodyPartMedial -ahá; Homonym -'kestá1 ear. See: -só'é; -xó'é; -má'ko'seo'o. Etym: O nikidin my vulva (N). Category: sex, body, vulgar.

-'kėstané   mbp. vagina. É-ónėše'kėstanéóhtse She has pain in the vagina. See: -ahá. Category: body.

-'néh   na. Gram: poss older brother. Gram: poss. nē-'ne your older brother. he-'neho his (or her) older brother(s). tséhe-'néhéto the one who is my older brother. na-'neha older brother (common noun and voc.) na-'néhasėstse my older brothers (voc.) vai: -he-'nehe. Etym: *ne'0e:hs-ehs-a my older brother (Go88). See: -meh older sister. Category: relatives.

-'ohta   ni. Gram: poss forehead. Gram: poss. ma-'ohta a forehead. Mó'ȯhkevá'netoo'ėstsėhéhe hétsėhéóhe he-'óhtáá'e hevóhtáne. He used to tie his skin up on his forehead. (1987:287). Morph: /ma-'óhtan/. Usage: sg. not commonly used, but obl. fairly well known ?? Plural ma-'óhtánėstse; Oblique ma-'óhtáá'e. Etym: *meška:htekwi. Category: body.

-'óhtá ??   fii. declare s.t. to be . See: -'ót ??. Category: speak.

-'óhtané   mbp. forehead. Náónėše-'óhtanéóhtse. My forehead hurts. Ho'honáeve-'óhtanéhe Stone Forehead (name). Éohaséve-'óhtáne. He has a shiny forehead. Category: body.

-'om ??   m. hill ?? hesé-'ome ridge. tséstovó'-oma'ene cut-through hill (esp. for road construction). tséššéstotó'evo-'omēno where there are pine trees on the hill (specifically, where Custer was laid to rest). See: -ose; -óm. Category: environment.

-'ót ??   fta. declare s.o. , call s.o. ? Épėhévo'-ótóho Ma'heóneva. oto?? He praised God. (lit., called him good). Épėhéve'-oto. ?? He honored him (lit., called him good). Náhávėsévo'-óto.  ?? I regard him as bad. Náma'heónevo'-óto. I praise him (declare him to be God). Néoseehoháe'-otoo'o.  ?? You caused them much loneliness. (1987:296). É-háo'-oto He bragged about him. fti: -óhtá ??. See: -átam. Category: cognition.

-'ov   fta. fti: -'á. by foot (or body). Ná-toe'ōvo I held him down with my foot. éé'e-'ovóho He broke him with his foot. éamó'a-'óvahtse He bicycled (lit. he-along-roll-by.foot-REFL) ?? Etym: *netahkweskawa:wa.

-'ovóhponahe   vai. be exacting. éhoháe-'ovóhponahe He is an honest person. Phon: contraction of -vovóhponahe See: -vovóhponahe.

-'pa'o   ni. Gram: poss back. of body. ma-'pa'o a back. Plural ma'pa'onȯtse. he-'pa'onéome behind the house. He-'pa'onevo éohkeamėhóheo'o. You walk behind them (in back of medicine people). Medial -'pa'oná. Etym: *mexpeθkwan-. Category: body.

-'pa'oná   mbp. back (of body). Éé'e-'pa'ōna. His back is broken. Éhese-'pa'onáotse. He has cramps in his back. Nátó-'pa'onáhno. I punched him in the back. pa'e-'pa'onáhe camel (lit. humpbacked one). See: -htȧhtoónoná spine. Category: body.

-'seh   fta. cause s.o. to . Nánémené-'sého. I made him sing. Námȯxe'eotsé-'sého. I took his picture (cause him to be written down or pictured). fti: -'sestsé.

-'sestsé   fti. cause s.t. to . Námȯxe'eotsé-'séstse. I took a picture of it. fta: -'seh. Morph: /-'sehté/.

'sevó   fii. flow. Éhóe-'sēvo. It's flowing out. Éame-'sēvo. It's flowing along. Category: liquid.

'(š)-   i. free. See: šé(x)-.

-'šeme   fai. make loud noise. Éháe-'šeme. He's making loud sounds. Category: sounds.

-'t   sfx. TA final. Phon: The /ov/ of this final contracts to /óe/ word-medially in the inverse voice, for example, návovéstomóéne 'he taught us (excl)'. Phon: If the preceding vowel is phonemically high pitched, most verbs requiring the -'tov final take its allomorph -no(t). In the direct voice this final is especially used to mark ai+o verbs, namely, intransitive verbs, which are secondarily marked to take a syntactic direct object, as in the following verbs: Nápėhévé-'tóvo. I took good care of him. Nápėhéve-'tova. He took good care of me. Nápėhévé-'tóó'e. They took good care of me. Épėhévé-'tóó'e. They/he (obv) took good care of him (prox). Népėhéve-'toene. He took good care of us (incl). Népėhéve-'toevoo'o. They took good care of you (pl). Náháóéná-'tóvo. I prayed to him. (cf. náháóéna 'I prayed'). Náne'étamé-'tova. He depends on me. (cf. náne'étame 'I depend'). Náne'étame-nȯtse. I depend on him. Éne'étamé-noto. He depends on him. Néné'étamé-none. We (incl) depend on him. Éne'étamé-novo. They depend on him. Námoné-'tova. He chose me. Námone-nȯtse. I chose him. Náhešké-'tova. She has me as mother. (cf. náheške 'I have a mother'). Náheške-nȯtse. She is my mother; I have her as mother. Category: grammar. var: -no. Etym: *-'taw. fti: -'tá. See: -ov; -ev; -no.

-'tá   fti. TI abstract final. Nápėhévé-'ta I took good care of it. fta: -'tov.

-'tósané   fai. to(ward) people ?? abstract AI final. Éne'étamé-'tȯsáne. He depends on people. Éohkeanoetanó-'tȯsáne. He puts people down. See: -ósané.

-'xove   m. time. nėhe-'xóvéva then/at that time. tséstaéšenenóve-'xove after a certain amount of time.