Independent order verbs: person combinations

English uses separate words, pronouns, like "I", "you", "she", "him," and "they", to indicate what person(s) is doing the action of a verb or being acted upon. Cheyenne indicates the same information with prefixes and suffixes on verbs. Following are all the person combinations possible with Cheyenne verbs, illustrated with the verb 'see'. These are verb combinations of Independent Order Cheyenne verbs, that is, verbs which can said independently. They don't require another verb to relate to as do the Conjunct Order (basically the same as English subordinate) verbs.

Abbreviations used are: (pl) is used with "you" when it means more than one person being spoken to, as we might say in English "you guys." (incl) indicates 'we' which includes the person spoken to, namely, 'you' or 'you (pl)' is included. (excl) indicates that the person spoken to is excluded. (obv) abbreviates "obviative", which is a third person which is "out of focus." The Cheyenne obviative is neutral with regard to number, that is, the person referred to can be either singular or plural. Read an explanation of the pitch marks on an Internet webpage (click here for the pitch marks page if you are reading this on a CD).


(Click on an underlined word to hear it.)


nßvˇomahtse I saw myself
nÚvˇomÔtse I saw you
nßvˇˇmo I saw him
nßvˇomamˇho I saw him/them (obv)
nÚvˇomatsŰme I saw you (pl)
nßvˇomoo'o I saw them

nÚvˇome you saw me
nÚvˇomahtse you saw yourself
nÚvˇˇmo you saw him
nÚvˇomanˇho you saw him/them (obv)
nÚvˇomemeno you saw us (excl)
nÚvˇomoo'o you saw them

nßvˇoma he saw me
nÚvˇoma he saw you
Úvˇomˇho he saw him (obv)
Úvˇomahtse he saw himself
nßvˇomaŰne he saw us (excl)
nÚvˇomaene he saw us (incl)
nÚvˇomaŰvo he saw you (pl)

nßvˇomaetsenoto he/they (obv) saw me
nÚvˇomaetsenoto he/they (obv.) saw you
Úvˇomńń'e he/they (obv) saw him
ÚvˇomÔhtˇho he/they (obv) saw himself
nßvˇomaetsenone he/they (obv) saw us (excl)
nÚvˇomaetsenone he/they (obv) saw us (incl)
nÚvˇomaetsen÷vo he/they (obv) saw you (pl)
Úvˇomaevˇho he/they (obv) saw them

nÚvˇomatsemeno we (excl) saw you
nßvˇomˇne we (excl) saw him
nßvˇomamone we (excl) saw him/them (obv)
nßvˇomÔhtsŰme we (excl) saw ourselves
nÚvˇomatsemeno we (excl) saw you (pl)
nßvˇomˇneo'o we (excl) saw them

nÚvˇomone we (incl) saw him
nÚvˇomamone we (incl) saw him/them (obv)
nÚvˇomamone we (incl) saw him/them (obv)
nÚvˇomÔhtsema we (incl) saw ourselves
nÚvˇomˇneo'o we (incl) saw them

nÚvˇomŰme you (pl) saw me
nÚvˇomˇvo you (pl) saw him
nÚvˇomamovo you (pl) saw him (obv)
nÚvˇomemeno you (pl) saw us (excl)
nÚvˇomÔhtsŰme you (pl) saw yourselves
nÚvˇomˇvoo'o you (pl) saw them

nßvˇomńń'e they saw me
nÚvˇomńń'e they saw you
Úvˇomovo they saw him/them (obv)
nßvˇomaeneo'o they saw us (excl)
nÚvˇomaeneo'o they saw us (incl)
nÚvˇomaevoo'o they saw you (pl)
ÚvˇomÔhtseo'o they saw themselves

nßvˇomńne I was seen
nÚvˇomńne you were seen
nßvˇomanÚme we (excl) were seen
nÚvˇomanema we (incl) were seen
nÚvˇomanÚme you (pl) were seen
Úvˇomeo'o they were seen

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