Cheyenne Dictionary


X - x

x-   tns. past tense. allomorph of /h/ 'past tense' before /h/. Éx-ho'sóeo'o. They danced. See: h- past tense. Category: grammar.

-xaa'e   vai. urinate, pee. É-xaa'e. He urinated. Phon: vs vti: -xaestá. See: -šéšeahe feel like urinating; -nȧha'en catch s.t./s.o.; xāō'o skunk. Morph: /-šae/. Etym: *šekiwa. See: -šéšeetanóotse. Category: body function.

xáa'e   na. weasel. Xaeho éohkemȯšéškanȧheo'o méanēva naa éohkevó'omȧheo'oaénéva. Weasels are brown in summer and they are white in winter. Phon: apoc; vs AltPl = xaeo'o Plural xaeho; Obviative xaeho. See: náa'e; naene; hohkeveho. Morph: /šaeh/. Etym: *šenkwehsa. Category: animals.

Xáa'ȯhvó'komaestse   na. White Ermine, White Weasel. Category: names.

-xaaméné   vai. smiley face, face smile. É-xááméne. He has a smiley face. See: -hohátséné. Category: face.

-xaaméné'o   vai. smile. É-xaaméné'o. He's smiling. Ques: -xaéméné'o ?? See: -hohátséné'ó. Category: face.

-xaameneotsé'tov   vta. smile at s.o. can be used of flirting with someone. Ná-xaameneotsé'tova. He smiled at me. vai: -xaaméne'ó. Category: face.

-xaaméneše   vai. smile while sleeping. É-xaaménéše. He smiling in his sleep. Category: sleep.

xae-   pv. simply, ordinary, plain, regular; xaevo'ėstaneo'o (var. of xamaevo'ėstaneo'o) Indians (lit. ordinary-people). Násáa-xaehéne'enóhe. I simply do not know. Phon: probably a contraction of xamae-, but the two terms have slightly different ranges of semantic usage

Xaehá'e   Weasel Woman. Category: names. Ques: henry little coyote's wife > Clara Harris

Xaehénȧhkohe   na. Weasel Bear. Category: names.

Xaehétane   na. Hopi. Category: tribes. Lit: weasel-person Plural Xaehétaneo'o.

xáema   na. boil. Phon: iah Etym: cf. M sae:kemyah. Category: sickness. Plural xaemaho; Obviative xaemaho.

xaenoo'ȯtse   ni. bladder. See: Mȧhtamȧháahé-xaenoo'ȯtse. Phon: vs vai: -xaa'e; Plural xaenootȯtse. Category: body.

-xaeóó'e   vai. urinate standing, stand urinating. É-xaeóó'e. He's standing urinating. Category: stand.

-xaestá   vti. urinate on s.t. Etym: cf. M seke:tam. oeškēso mȧxhéxaēsto nevenȯtse he'poo'o When a dog urinates against your tent just smoke! (instruction to a new chief, meaning "When someone does something bad to you, even as bad as stealing your wife, stay calm, don't take revenge.") tóhtoo'é-ma'eóne éohkema'xė-xaestánóvo ka'ėškóneho Children pee on prairie turtles a lot. Category: smoke. vta: -xaet.

-xaestóo'onáohtsé   vai. dry throat - have a. for ex., said after eating tart berries, or after eating sour lemons. Ná-xaestóo'onáóhtse. I have a dry throat. See: -éstoo'e. Category: sickness.

-xaéstoo'onáotse   vai. glands water. Lit: urinate-jaw-INCH É-xaéstoo'onáotse. His jaw glands are watering. This happens, for example, when eating something sour. Category: body function. BodyPartMedial -éstoo'oná; Stem -éstoo'o.

-xaeše   vai. urinate in bed. Lit: urinate-lie É-xaēše. He urinated in bed. See: -šéšeénome. Category: lie.

-xaet   vta. urinate on s.o. É-xaetóho. He urinated on him. vti: -xaestá.

-xaetanó   vai. want to urinate. É-xaetāno. He wants to urinate. [PD]

-xáevanohtsé   vai. noisily walk. É-xáévánóhtse. He's walking noisily. Category: walk.

Xáévánóhtsėstse   na. Noisy Walker. Category: names. See: Néstónéváhtsėstse. Category: sounds.

xaevetoo'o   ni. commode; pee pot. Category: containers.

xaevo'ėstane   na. Indian. Category: tribes. Usage: less common than xamaevo'ėstaneo'o Lit: ordinary-person

xaevo'ėstane   pv. Indian. Category: tribes. Usage: less common than xamaevo'ėstaneo'o Lit: ordinary-person

xȧhkema   na. mud hen. possibly the coot or grebe. Plural xȧhkemaho. Usage: obsolescing; this pronunciation was more common than mȧhkema in the past. var: mȧhkema; Obviative xȧhkemaho. Etym: *šenki'm(ehs)a water hen, grebe (Pe79:379); cf. M sekeemeh diver duck. Category: birds.

-xá'xae'pa'onáh(n)   vta. massage back of s.o. É-xá'xae'pa'onahno. He massaged his back. BodyPartMedial -'pa'oná. Category: body.

-xá'xaen   vti. massage s.t. É-xá'xaēna. He massaged it.

vta. massage s.o. É-xá'xaenóho. He massaged him.

-xá'xanohá   vti. crush s.t. by tool. É-xá'xanōha. He crushed it by tool. Etym: cf. *šekw-; redup. še'šekw- 'crush, grind'.

-xá'xanóhtá   vti. chew s.t. É-xá'xanóhta. He chewed it. Xá'xanóhtȯhtse! Chew it! Category: eat.

-xá'xanȯhta'ov   vta. crush s.o. by stomping. Ques: reck first pitch with other speakers tsé'éšemá'sė-xá'xanȯhta'ovȯse after he got through stomping them. See: -xó'xoeohá'ov. Category: violence.

-xá'xanom   vta. chew s.o. É-xá'xanomóho. He chewed him. Ná-xá'xánómo. I chewed him. fta: -om. Category: eat.

2 • vta. gossip about s.o.

-xa'xoeotse   vai. deflated. É-xa'xoeotse. It's deflated.

-xa'xoeše   vai. duck down, crouch down. for example, lowering oneself in a car so as not to be seen by others outside. É-xa'xoēše. He's ducking down. Category: motion.

-xamaa'é'o'tov   vta. bow head to s.o. for example, a sign of worship or respect in some cultures. É-xamaa'é'o'tovóho. He bowed his head to him. vai: -xama'a'éóé. See: -tóo'á'eóe'tov. Category: interpersonal.

-xamaa'éoeotse   vai. bow head quickly while standing. É-xamaa'éoeotse. He quickly bowed his head while standing. See: -xama'a'éóé. Category: interpersonal.

-xamaa'éóó'e   vai. stand with bowed head. var: -xama'a'éóé. É-xamaa'éóó'e. He stood with bowed head. vta: -xamaa'é'o'tov. Category: stand.

xamae-   pv. ordinary; simple; simply; prototypical; natural; common. As a prenoun, this modifier marks terms which are culturally prototypical, or the unmarked species, for example xamae-hoohtsėstse, xamae-kóhkonȯheo'o, xamae-vo'ėstane, xamae-vee'e. xamae-vo'ėstaneo'o Indians (lit. ordinary-people). xamae-hoohtsėstse cottonwood tree. Ná-xamaemésehe. I ate simple/I ate in the Indian fashion/I ate without fuss or bother (for example, without fancy manners). Phon: contracted to xae-

xamaehoohtsėstse   na. cottonwood. Usage: commonly used term Lit: ordinary-tree possibly omission of the prototype prenoun xamae- can also refer tithe cottonwood. See: hoohtsėstse. Category: trees. Plural xamaehoóhtseto; Obviative xamaehoóhtseto.

xamaekȧhámáxėstse   ni. Gram: pl ordinary firewood, cottonwood branches. Lit: ordinary sticks for example, ash or cottonwood, but not pine. See: kȧhámáxe. Category: wood.

xamaekóhkonȯheo'o   ni. Indian oven bread. Category: food.

xamae'oeškēse   na. Indian dog. Lit: ordinary-dog Category: animals, dogs. See: oeškēse.

xamaemȧhaemenȯtse   ni. Gram: pl Indian corn. Category: food.

xamaemé'šéško   ni. hand-tanned leather. See: mé'šéško. Category: handcraft.

xamaemo'ē'ėstse   ni. Gram: pl blue joint grass. Category: plants.

xamaeoeškēso   na. Indian dog, mutt. proper kind for eating at the Sun Dance. Plural xamaeoeškėseho. Category: dogs.

xamaesémo   ni. canoe. Lit: ordinary-boat Plural xamaesémonȯtse. Category: transportation.

xamaešé'šenovȯtse   na. rattlesnake. Category: snakes.

xamaevánó'ėstse   ni. Gram: pl native sage. Category: plants.

xamaevee'e   ni. tepee. Lit: ordinary-dwelling See: vee'e; éškȯseome; vé'ho'éome. Category: tepee.

xamaevé'késo   na. sparrow. meaning of 'sparrow' not widely known. var: xamaevé'kése. Category: birds.

xamaevo'ėstane   na. Indian. Lit: ordinary-person Usage: less commonly shortened to xaevo'ėstane (said by some to be of the Southern Cheyenne dialect, however, both the longer and shorter forms are found in texts from Oklahoma Plural xamaevo'ėstaneo'o. See: -tsėhéstahe. Category: tribes.

-xama'a'éóó'e   vai. stand with bowed head. var: -xamaa'éóé. É-xama'a'éóó'e. He stood with bowed head. vta: -xamaa'é'o'tov. Category: stand.

-xanánot   vta. calm s.o. É-xanánotóho. He calmed him down. (for example, by holding him tightly when he was angry). See: ována'xae-.

-xanáotse   vai. calm down. É-xanáotse. He calmed down. Mó'éšė-xanáootsėhéhe. He was starting to see reason. [Stamper 1991:8] See: -méseeotse. Category: emotions, cognition.

-xanéhpahe   vai. steadfast; stubborn. É-xanéhpahe. He is steadfast/he is stubborn/he 'can't be budged'. Usage: obsolescing Category: personality.

xanéhpe-   pv. scoop-shaped. xanéhpe-ménȯhe'éheo'o shovel.

xanéhpe-ménȯhe'éheo'o   ni. spade, shovel. xanéhpe- has something to do with being 'scoop-shaped'. See: ménȯhe'éhestatseo'o; -ménȯhené. Phon: vs Category: tools.

xanov-   i. straight. See: ono'-.

-xanovahe   vai. 1 • be straight.

2 • honest, righteous, well-respected, proper. Usage: fig.; may be loan transl. from English É-xanovahe. He is straight/upright. See: -ono'ahe proper. Antonym -vovóhkahe.

-xanova'haso'he   vai. ride horse straight. É-xanova'haso'he. He rode horse straight. Category: horses.

-xanova'ó   vai. shoot straight, jump straight. É-xanovā'o. It shot straight. Final -a'ó. Category: motion.

-xanovan   vti. straighten s.t. É-xanovāna He straightened it.

vta. straighten s.o. É-xanovanóho. He straightened him.

-xanovátam   vta. regard s.o. as being straight. É-xanovátamóho. He regards him as being straight (righteous etc.). Category: cognition, interpersonal.

-xanovaxá   vti. cut s.t. straight. É-xanovāxa. He cut it straight. Antonym -vovóhkaxá. Category: cut.

xanove-   pv. straight. É-xanoveameōhtse. He's walking straight. See: sóhkome-.

-xanovehné   vai. walk straight. É-xanovēhne. He walked straight. [Croft] Category: walk.

-xanove'há   vai. fly straight. É-xanovē'ha. He flew straight. Category: fly.

-xanove'háoohe   vai. fly straight. É-xanove'háoohe. He flew straight. Category: fly.

-xanoveohtsé   vai. go straight. Tanėševe-xanoveōhtsėstse!. Go/Drive straight! See: -xanovó. Category: shapes.

-xanoveóó'e   vai. stand straight. Phon: vs É-xanoveóó'e. He's standing straight. Category: stand.

-xanoveotse   vii. straight. É-xanoveotse. It is straight (for example, a road). See: -xanovó. Category: shapes.

-xanoveše   vai. lie straight. É-xanovēše. He's lying straight. Category: lie.

-xanovėšem   vta. lay s.o. straight. É-xanovėšemóho. He lay him/them straight. for example, to lay tepee poles straight on the ground. Category: lie.

-xanovetóvȧsen   vta. part hair of s.o. straight. Ná-xanovetóvȧséno. I parted his hair straight. See: -tóvas. Category: hair.

-xanovevo'oh(n)   vta. hit s.o. straight. É-xanovevo'ȯhnóho. He hit/knocked him straight.

-xanovó   vii. straight. É-xanōvo. It is straight. Antonym -vovóhkó. See: -onó'ó. Category: shapes.

-xanovóé'ó   vai. float straight. É-xanovóé'o. He/It floated straight. Final -óé'ó. Category: liquid.

-xanovo'ȧhéotse   vai. run straight. É-xanovo'ȧhéotse. He ran straight. fai: -o'ȧhéotse. Category: run.

-xanovo'eétahe   vai. do (something) straight; do right. É-xanovo'eétahe. He did (something) straight/he lives straight. fai: -o'eétahe. Category: do.

-xanovo'tá   vii. sit straight. É-xanovō'ta. It is sitting straight. Category: sit inan.

-xanovónean   vti. make s.t. (ropelike) straight.

vta. make s.o. (ropelike) straight. of a rope or fence. É-xanovóneane. It's a straight fence; it's been fenced straight. Medial -ón; Antonym -vovóhkonean. Category: shapes.

-xanovóneanené   vai. straight fence - build a, fence - build a straight. É-xanovóneanēne. He built a straight fence. Medial -ón. Category: ropelike.

xaóemata'xevoto   na. Gram: pl onions, wild onion(s). Lit: skunk-testicles See: xaóenėhéstȧhévo onion; ta'xevȯtse testicle. Category: plants, vulgar.

-xaóeméa'há   vii. smell of skunk, onion. É-xaóeméá'ha. It smells of skunks/onions. Category: smell.

-xaóeméa'xe   vai. 1 • smell of skunk; smell of onion. É-xaóeméa'xe. He smells of onion (or skunk).

that is, didn't get any points, esp. in hand game. Usage: loan transl. from English2 •  É-xaóeméa'xeo'o. They were "skunked." Category: smell.

Xaóeméhé'e   na. Skunk Smell Woman. Obviative Xaóeméhe'eva. Category: names.

xaóenėhéstȧhévo   na. onion, onions. including wild onion. See: xaóemata'xevoto. Category: plants.

-xaóeva'ó   vai. fail miserably, lose out romantically, skunked, take a chance and lose. Lit: skunked esp. of failing losing out to some other man who got the woman you wanted. Usage: idiomatic É-xaóévá'o. He lost out. probably borrowed from English "skunked". Category: romance.

-xaóeva'ó'hané   vai. skunked. Usage: idiomatic Ná-xaóeva'ó'haneo'o.?? We got skunked. ?? probably borrowed from English "skunked". Category: romance, games.

xaóhkéso   na. Gram: dim 1 • little skunk. Plural xaóhkėsono; Obviative xaóhkėsono; Non-diminutive xāō'o. Category: animals.

2 • Little Skunk. Category: names.

-xaóhkevȯxe'é   vai. be yellow painted. É-xaóhkevȯxē'e. He is yellow-painted on his face. Lit: skunk-painted Category: paint.

xāō'o   na. 1 • skunk. Plural xaóne; Obviative xaóne; Diminutive xaóhkéso. See: -xaóeva'ó. Morph: /šaón/. Etym: *šeka:kwa skunk; šeka:kwaki skunks (Go88). Category: animals.

2 • tree skunk. a vertical victory structure usually made of pieces of ash. Ques: Why is it named skunk? Category: ceremonial.

-xe   fai. lie. Náoo'hetanóná-xe I'm thinking lying down. éháóéná-xe He's praying lying down. Phon: allomorph of /-(e)šená/ 'lie' following back vowels -a or -o var: -eše. Category: lie.

xe'ėstoo'o   ni. paper, book. younger speakers' pronunciation of mȯxe'ėstoo'o. var: mȯxe'ėstoo'o. Category: school.

xȯhéono   na. Gram: pl Ques: pl?? webbed hoop. for a traditional Cheyenne game. See: -ahkȯheohtsé; hó'xėséme; hóhtséme. Category: games. Ques: Is this correctly glossed? It may be that hó'xėséme is the proper name for this object, and xȯhéono is something else used in a traditional game.

xo'-   i. salve (put on).

xo'anéó'o   ni. salve. Phon: vs; gr var: xo'enéó'o; Plural xo'anéonȯtse. Category: medicine.

-xó'é   mbp. genital area; crotch. Émátšė-xó'e. He (or she) has VD. See: -só'é crotch. Category: body.

xo'ėhaénén   vta. salve.tears. Category: eyes, medicine.

xo'ėhaénenȧhtsestȯtse   ni. eye.salve. Category: medicine.

Xo'ėhéhe   na. Raw Woman. See: -ho'e. Category: names.

-xo'ėhe'onán   vta. salve hand of s.o. É-xo'ėhe'onano. He put salve on his (someone else's) hand. Category: hand.

-xo'ematsén   vta. salve eyes of s.o. É-xo'ematsénahtse. He put salve on his own eyes. Category: eyes.

xo'ematsénenȧhtsestȯtse   ni. Gram: nom eye salve. Category: medicine.

-xo'en   vti. grease; put salve on s.t./s.o. (by hand). É-xo'ēna. He greased it/put salve on it (by hand).

vta. salve s.o., grease s.o. É-xo'enóho. He greased him. Category: surface.

xo'enéó'o   ni. salve. Phon: vs; gr var: xo'anéó'o; Plural xo'enéonȯtse. Category: medicine.

xo'éstaahtȯtse   ni. hair tonic; hair oil. Category: hair.

-xo'éstáá'e   vai. apply hair oil; salve. Phon: vs É-xo'éstáá'e. He is putting hair oil on. Né-xo'éstaehe? Did you grease your hair? É-xo'éstaeo'o. They are putting hair oil on. See: Ma'heónėxo'éstaenėstse. Category: hair.

-xo'éstaén   vta. put oil on head of s.o., grease head of s.o. É-xo'éstaeno. He put oil on his (someone else's) head. Traditionally, Ch's would put grease on their hands and rub it into their hair. Category: head.

-xo'évoéné   vai. salve face. É-xo'évoéne. He's putting cream on his face. Category: face.

-xo'évoénén   vta. salve face of s.o. É-xo'évoénenahtse. He's rubbing his (own) face with cream. Category: face.

-xo'évoénénéh(n)   vta. apply salve to face of s.o. É-xo'évoénėhnóho. He put salve on his face. É-xo'évoénėhestse. He put salve on his (own) face. See: -xo'ėhe'onán put salve on hand of s.o.. Category: face.

-xo'oh   vti. grease.s.t. É-xo'ōha. He greased it (for example, a wagon wheel). Category: surface.

-xo'oma'ó'h   vta. put (something) in mouth of s.o. É-xo'oma'o'ho. He put something in his (someone else's) mouth. Naa móhe vo'ėstane vé'keemahpe néxo'oma'ó'haehe? Did someone put candy in your mouth? (fig., = pacify you so you quit talking as you previously did). See: -xo'ome. Category: mouth.

-xo'ome   vai. 1 • put in mouth, ingest.

vti. Gram: ai+o Né-xo'oménone. We're taking it into our mouths.

2 • take Holy Communion, take the Eucharist; Literally refers to placing something in one's mouth, but now often especially refers to partaking in the rite of Communion. É-xo'ome. He's taking Communion. Nátȧhé-xo'ome. I'm going to take Communion. [Stamper 1991:10] See: hetomóosanéve'hanahtȯtse; -ma'heónekóhkonȯheonéve'haná; -xo'oma'ó'h. Final -om. Category: church.

-xo'omóhtahe   vai. relaxed; peaceful. É-xo'omóhtahe. He is relaxed. See: ována'xae-.

-xó'xoeoha'ov   vta. smash s.o. with the feet. É-xó'xoeoha'ovóho. He stomped him. See: -xá'xanȯhta'ov. Category: feet, violence.

xó'xon-   i. dent.

-xó'xonó   vii. dented. É-xó'xóno. It's dented. Category: surface, shapes.

xomȯhēō'o   ni. hide scraper. Usage: obsolescent See: mónáhtsėstse. Category: tools.

Xomóó'e   na. Lance Woman, Spear Woman. Category: names.

xomoo'o   ni. lance. var: xomoo'e. See: xová'tove. Category: warfare.

-xomóonoh(n)   vta. lance s.o. É-xomóonȯhnóho. He lanced him. [PD639] Category: warfare.

xóneehá   vii. reach ?? Hestsėhévá'xe tseohkemȧhexóneehatse ho'ēva. His tail will reach all the way to the ground.

-xónetam   i. filthy, dirty, unclean. É-xónetamāhtse. He has a filthy mouth. Preverb xónetame-; Reduplicated -xȯxónetam.

-xónetamahe   vai. filthy; unsanitary. É-xónetamahe. He is filthy (as a person). See: -ho'sótahe. Category: appearance.

-xónetamahtse   vai. talk filthy. Lit: filthy-mouth É-xónetamāhtse. He talks filthy. Category: speak.

xónetame-   pv. filthy, dirty. É-xónetame-tsėhēso. It's messy, dirty. Antonym hóxe'e-.

-xónetameéestsé   vai. talk filthy, talk dirty, filthy talk, dirty talk, talk nasty, nasty talk. É-xónetameééstse. He is talking dirty. See: -éestse. Category: speak.

-xónetamem   vta. talk filthy to s.o. É-xónetamemóho. He talked dirty to him. Category: speak.

-xónetamenestse   vai. speak filthy language. É-xónetamenestse. He speaks filthy. Category: speak.

-xónetamó   vii. muddy. É-xónétámo. It's muddy/sloppy. É-xónétámo meo'o. The road is muddy. var: -nėxónétámo. Category: weather.

-xónetamó'ané   vai. talk dirty. É-xónetamó'áne. He talks dirty. var: -xȯxónetamó'ané; fai: -ó'ané. Category: speak.

-xónetamotse'ohe   vai. filthy work. for example, a job of cleaning out sewers. É-xónetamotse'ohe. He has a filthy job / he does filthy work. Category: work.

-xónetamȯxe'ėstóné   vai. graffiti. Lit: filthy-write É-xónetamȯxe'ėstóne. He's writing graffiti. Category: write.

xonóona'e   ni. drift. for example, in a river. Oblique xonóona'ēva. Category: rivers.

xová'tove   ni. sword. Plural xová'tovȯtse. Usage: obsolescing Oblique xová'tonēva. See: xomoo'o. Category: warfare.